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Physical attacks and threats to life, liberty, and health

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Non-physical and/or cyber-attacks and threats

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Attacks via judicial or economic means

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Media Risk Map


Pursuant to its Mission Statement, the Justice for Journalists Foundation, together with its partners and experts, carries out daily monitoring of attacks against media workers in all post-Soviet countries excluding the Baltic states, the results of which are published on the Media Risk Map in both Russian and English

The purpose is to monitor attacks and abuses against journalists and other media workers as highlighted below as further specified in its Objects. All listings on the Media Risk Map are provided after our due consideration of our freedom of expression criteria set out here.

The term ‘media workers’ includes journalists, camerapersons, photographers and other employees and managers of traditional and digital media, as well as bloggers and online-activists. 

The Media Risk Map covers the period from 2017 onwards. The data is collected by our partners and expert from open sources in Russian, English and the relevant state language. 


Attacks types

Physical attacks and threats to life, liberty, and health

  • Abduction, taking captive/hostage, illegal deprivation of liberty
  • Attempted murder
  • Beating/ injury / torture resulting in death
  • Death while in custody or as a result of loss of health in captivity
  • Disappearance
  • Fatal accident
  • Murder
  • Non-fatal accident
  • Non-fatal attack / beating / injury / torture
  • Pressure on a media worker via physical pressure on relatives and loved ones
  • Punitive psychiatric treatment not resulting in death
  • Punitive psychiatric treatment resulting in death
  • Sexual harassment
  • Sexual violence
  • Sudden unexplained death
  • Suicide
  • Suicide attempt
  • Unlawful military conscription

Non-physical and/or cyber attacks and threats

  • Breaking into email / social media accounts / computer / smartphone
  • Bullying, intimidation, pressure, threats of violence and death, including cyber-
  • Cyber-, DDOS, and hacker attack on a media outlet
  • Damage to / seizure of property, vehicles, equipment, documents, journalistic materials, print run
  • Damage to/seizure of the residence/work premises
  • Defamation, spreading libel about a media worker or media outlet
  • Forced emigration as a result of non-physical and/or cyber-attacks and threats
  • Identity theft / phishing / doxxing
  • Illegal impediments to journalistic activity, denial of access to information
  • Pressure on a media worker via non-physical pressure on relatives and loved ones
  • Pressure on a source, including threats of violence and death
  • Trolling
  • Wiretapping/surveillance without a court decree

Attacks via judicial or economic means

  • Administrative arrest, remand, pre-trial detention, prison
  • Arrest in absentia
  • Arrest of bank account/ property
  • Authorised travel ban (movement inside a country or specific region/town)
  • Ban on engaging in journalistic activity
  •  Ban on entering the country, denial or revocation of a visa/accreditation
  • Ban on leaving the country
  • Community service, ban on certain activities and other punishment following a criminal case
  • Confiscation/seizure of property, vehicles, equipment, documents, journalistic materials
  • Court trial
  • Criminal/administrative prosecution excluding (1), (2) and (3) 
  • Dismissal / involuntary dismissal /forced quitting of the profession
  • Fine for non-compliance with the «foreign agents» law in accordance with the Criminal Code
  • Fine for non-compliance with the «foreign agents» law in accordance with the Code of Administrative Offences
  • Fines and other restrictions following administrative offences
  • Forced cessation of journalistic activity/ closure of media outlet due to the state of war and/or military censorship
  • Forced deportation, Extradition 
  • Forced emigration as a result of legal/economic pressure
  • House arrest
  • Interrogation
  • Labelling media/individuals as foreign agents
  • Pressure on a media worker via judicial and/or economic means on relatives and loved ones
  • Prosecution for dissemination of false information and fakes (3)
  • Prosecution for extremism, links with terrorists, inciting hatred, high treason, calling for the overthrow of the constitutional order, rehabilitation of Nazism (2)
  • Prosecution for libel, insult, violation of privacy (1)
  • Prosecution for violation of the honour, dignity and business reputation; violation of privacy following a civil lawsuit
  • Repayment of compensation and legal costs following civil lawsuits
  • Request to remove or block the article and/or refutation
  • Search with a court decree
  • Search without a court decree
  • Selective application of repressive laws
  • Short-term detention
  • Shutting down a media outlet / blocking an Internet site/ seizure of an entire print run
  • Suspended sentence
  • Unauthorised travel ban (inside country, region or town)
  • Warnings, pre-trial complaints, questioning and other extra-judicial actions
  • Wiretapping/ surveillance with a court decree